Thursday, 2 February 2012

Water:The unknown things

Water is a chemical substance with the chemical formula H2O. A water molecule contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms connected by covalent bonds. Water is a liquid at ambient conditions, but it often co-exists on Earth with its solid state, ice, and gaseous state. Water covers 70.9% of the Earth's surface, and is vital for all known forms of life.

Well these are the things what we know about water in general, and something is there in water which can bounce a stone, can cut metal, and will give you pain.

Want to know about it, Surface tension is a property of the surface of a liquid that allows it to resist an external force. It is revealed, for example, in the floating of some objects on the surface of water, even though they are denser than water, and in the ability of some insects (e.g. water striders) to run on the water surface.
This Surface tension gives a shape to the water.

Beading of rain water on the surface of a waxy surface, such as a leaf. Water adheres weakly to wax and strongly to itself, so water clusters into drops. Surface tension gives them their near-spherical shape, because a sphere has the smallest possible surface area to volume ratio.Formation of drops occurs when a mass of liquid is stretched.Separation of oil and water (in this case, water and liquid wax) is caused by a tension in the surface between dissimilar liquids. This type of surface tension is called "interface tension", but its physics are the same.

Water can cut the steel, when it is been applied on it through a small hole with the speed of 1000km/sec. When you through a stone into water sometime it will bounce, because the Surface tension of the water. It will happen when you through a stone into water in a particular angle and velocity.

Why are we using hot water to wash cloths? because when you heat the water the Surface tension will reduce. The detergent powders will also reduces the Surface tension.

And also you can beat some body with water, by applying it in particular force on them, such force is used by Fire service.

Monday, 30 January 2012

Accident Rates in India

Accidents are quite common on Indian Roads. According to figures by the Road Safety Cell of the Union Ministry of Road Transport and Highways, there were 3.9 lakh accidents in 2000; 78,911 were killed and 3, 99,265 injured. Moreover with the rapid urbanization, India has seen an un-precedent growth of motor vehicles. Currently motor vehicle accidents rank ninth in order of disease burden and are projected to be ranked third in the year 2020. Worldwide, the number of people killed in road traffic crashes each year is estimated at almost 1.2 million, while the number injured could be as high as 50 million. In India, over 80,000 persons die in the traffic crashes annually, over 1.2 million are injured seriously and about 300000 disabled permanently.

Safety studies have found that a majority of accidents occur either due to the driver’s error or due to the negligence of the safety norms. Driver fatigue, drunken driving are some other reasons of the mishaps. The actions like dangerous overtaking, lane cutting, jumping of signals, erratic parking can be counted as major causes for the calamities on the roads. Usually, accidents are prevalent in urban cities where “Speed” of the vehicles is uncontrollable and where each and every individual is in hurry. Private vehicles get struck in the local roads while the commercial vehicle accidents are prevalent on highways. Buses are one more player. Many bus tyres get exploded, while most accidents occur because they do not use dim headlights.

 “Most countries have a multi-disciplinary approach to traffic planning and road design. It is done by psychologists, engineers, doctors, sociologists and vehicle experts. In India, traffic is still a civil engineering issue.”


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